Digital’s RT-11 File System

(Circa 1975-199?) The PDP-11 computer, build by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the late 20th century, was a classic machine of the minicomputer era. At the time of the -11's introduction, DEC really had no idea what to do about software for its machines, and wasn't even sure what was appropriate in the way of... Continue Reading →

Kilo mega giga tera

Here is a summary of memory size names and their corresponding address sizes. Many people memorize this type of information naturally through working with computer technology over time or during a professional career. Practicing with QuizletIf you want to memorize these values, there are flash cards and other self-training exercises on the Quizlet page. The page... Continue Reading →

Memory Sizes: kilo mega giga tera peta exa

Here is a summary of memory size names and their corresponding address sizes. Many people memorize this type of information naturally through working with computer technology over time or during a professional career. Practicing with Quizlet If you want to memorize these values, there are flash cards and other self-training exercises on the Quizlet page. The... Continue Reading →

Boston University’s RAX Library

(circa 1973-8) Boston University (BU) developed its own timesharing system in the 1970s for its IBM 360 and 370 mainframes. The system was based on the batch-oriented Remote Access Computing System (RACS) developed by IBM. McGill University also participated in RAX development, but their version was renamed "McGill University System for Interactive Computing" (MUSIC). Although many of the... Continue Reading →

A Simple CPU Demonstration

CPU = Central Processing Unit The CPU is the working part of the computer. It runs your programs, makes changes to the contents of memory, and sends data to peripheral devices. Thus, it causes the computer to produce the results you want. The Simple CPU demonstrates how a computer works: what some very simple computer instructions... Continue Reading →

One-Time Pads

The one-time pad is the only encryption technique that has been mathematically proven to be uncrackable. While hard to use, it has often been the choice for highly sensitive traffic. Soviet spies used one-time pads in the 1940s and -50s. The Washington-Moscow "hot line" also uses one-time pads. However, the technique is hard to use... Continue Reading →

Stream ciphers

Whenever your browser establishes a “secure” connection to a web site, it encrypts the data. The encryption often takes place byte-by-byte, since the software can't always predict how much data will be sent. This encryption style requires a stream cipher. Stream ciphers use a deceptively simple mechanism: you combine the plaintext data, bit by bit, with “key”... Continue Reading →

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