You are here

xor

AES in Cartoon Form!

I've always been a fan of graphic presentations. More people understand graphs and diagrams than understand equations. While this is a bad thing in some ways, it remains a fact. So it's always great to see a graphical representation of a really difficult set of concepts.

Jeff Moser Fisher has posted A Stick Figure Guide to the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). He has wisely structured it in layers.

Wordpress tag: 
Post category: 

Vernam's Cipher

Gilbert Vernam was a digital systems designer from the early 20th century. He invented the stream cipher, what browsers often use today to encrypt messages exchanged with protected web sites. In his days, however, the mechanism of choice was the relay: an electromagnetic switch. Vernam also described the one-time pad, and noted the danger in reusing the key stream.

What, then is a Vernam cipher? Is it a stream cipher or a one-time pad? I've seen the term used both ways.

Now we can check the source. Steve Bellovin recently blogged on Vernam's work, and posted a PDF of Vernam's original  paper. Vernam wrote the paper for an AIEE conference (that's one of the precursors of today's IEEE - Bellovin negotiated permission to post the historic paper).

If we look at the historical description, Vernam does not restrict his cipher to the one-time pad case. Thus, a Vernam cipher in practice might - or might not - be a one-time pad. [revised 9/7/09]

Stream Cipher Reuse: A Graphic Example

Take a look at the following image. You should see two different 'messages' here.

Smiley overlaying the \" title=

  Two messages

This particular mis-mash of messages reflects the failure of otherwise strong cryptography: the improper implementation of a one-time pad or a stream cipher.

Post category: 

Encrypting with XOR: A Graphic Example

The exclusive or operation - a logical function applied to binary bits, like AND, OR, and NOT - is a fundamental encryption technique. It is often used in stream ciphers, which are widely used in web browsers when connecting to secure web servers.

Post category: 

Stream Ciphers

Whenever your browser establishes a “secure” connection to a web site, it encrypts the data. Traditionally, the browser and site use a stream cipher called Rivest Cipher #4 (RC4), although some sites use newer techniques.

Stream ciphers use a deceptively simple mechanism: you combine the plaintext data, bit by bit, with “key” bits, using the exclusive or operation. This is often abbreviated xor, and denoted by ⊕ - a circle with a cross.

Post category: 

Theme by Danetsoft and Danang Probo Sayekti inspired by Maksimer