I am finishing up a textbook on elementary information security. Unlike other books, this one targets freshmen and sophomores, and eschews memorization for problem-solving.
Sprinkled here and there are concepts we all should recognize as "basic principles" of information security: ideas that transcend programming, network design, and system administration. Now that I'm finished, here is a summary of the ones I covered. I've also noted how they compare to Saltzer and Schroeder's classic list from 1975 and, briefly, the NIST principles in SP800-14.