John von Neumann published the earliest and most influential discussions of how to build electronic digital computers. His earliest known publication on computer design was actually a draft report he created in June, 1945, that was widely distributed among the infant community of computer developers.
On May 15, 1946, von Neumann gave a detailed talk about the general principles of computer design. He was addressing the US Navy's Mathematical Computing Advisory Panel, a group that oversaw the Navy's computing R&D progams. Like the earlier draft, this talk was quickly transcribed, mimeographed, and distributed. The resulting paper was titled "The Principles of Large-Scale Computing Machines."
My father was about to be discharged from the Navy as this was taking place. He had spent World War II working on classified electronics in Boston. The Navy offered him a civilian job overseeing computer research projects. Thus, a copy of von Neumann's "Principles" paper ended up in his archives.
I have made a PDF copy of this paper and posted it here. This is a sort of companion to Whirlwind block diagrams I posted earlier.